For writing out phrases in Old Norse, I use the Younger Futhark rune alphabet, which is time-period appropriate and the script the language is originally written in.

Elder Futhark is used mostly for divination – a shamanic practice called seiðr – but if you want an English phrase written in Elder Futhark, it can do that, too. It works better than Younger Futhark for directly replacing English letters, as the alphabet is larger. Elder Futhark was not used historically to write in Old Norse.

For now, here are some very basic meanings for each rune. Click here for help Reading Rune Dice.

Other names: Although the runes were recognized across the range of Norse Germanic influence, different regions and cultures had their own pronunciations. For instance, Yngvi (Old Norse) was also Ingwaz (Proto Germanic), as well as Inguin (Old High German) further South, and Ingwine (Old English/Saxon) further West. This list does not capture all variations, just the most common. There are also name variations depending on the time period, and which alphabet the rune was a part of at that time. To make it more fun for historians and linguists, many of the regional alphabets also made use of their own unique runes, and many also left some of the common runes out!

Meaning: This will be the most likely literal translation of the rune.

God associations: Whether commonly associated in history or more recently associated, if there are gods that are represented by the rune, they will be listed here.

Symbolism: Possible interpretations of each rune, based on various sources, both old and new.

The Old Norwegian Rune Poem: there are three existing rune poems, by three different authors, which preserve versions of an original Younger Futhark rune letter list in poetic form. I prefer the Norwegian to the Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon, but they are all very similar.